People visit Chinatown in Manila, Philippines. Credit: Tupungato /

This article was originally published by SAGE publications in ‘Environment and Urbanization ASIA’. Please visit the link below to view and download the full article.


Cities have always been the predominant centres of political power, economic growth, educational and cultural advancement and technological innovation. However, rapid urbanization and growth of metropolitan cities, especially in developing countries, have resulted to various challenges that national and local governments and institutions fail to address completely. Against this background, small- and medium-sized cities are becoming the new growth nodes of the country. Batangas City in the Philippines is a medium-sized city located in the proximity of the Metro Manila region. This article provides an overview of the urbanization of Batangas City with special reference to its social, economic and urban characteristics along with its pressing challenges. The study highlights the current state of Batangas City with an emphasis on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on health, education and urban sustainability. Finally, the article attempts to conclude on whether the city is gearing towards a learning, healthy and sustainable Batangas City.

Reyes, M. R. D., Daguio, K. G. L., & Gamboa, M. A. M. (2019). City Profile: Batangas City, Philippines. Environment and Urbanization ASIA10(2), 151–175.